What is Theism:
Theism is the philosophical concept that defends the existence of gods , that is, higher divine entities that would have been responsible for the creation of the universe and all things in it.
Theism supports the idea of the existence of one (monotheism) or several gods (polytheism), so it is not considered a type of religion. This concept is limited to classifying only that which is related to the existence of gods. Theology, for example, is a discipline born of and based on the concept of theism.
Theism can be divided into: monotheism (belief in one God); polytheism (belief in various gods); and henotheism (belief in various gods, one of which is supreme to all). Thus theists are both Christian (monotheistic) Christians, for they believe in only one God; and by Hindus (polytheists), who believe in various gods.
The word theism originated from the Greek theos , which literally means “god”. Thus the concept of theism is directly opposed to that of atheism , which does not believe in the existence of any kind of divinity.
Theistic philosophy began to be propagated from the seventeenth century through the English philosopher and theologian Ralph Cudworth (1617 – 1688). Its emergence came to oppose atheistic, deist and pantheistic movements.
The main feature of theism is the strengthening of the idea of the existence of one God, omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent, who transcends all things in the universe.
It consists of a theological practice where some of God’s main characteristics are removed: omnipresence, omnipotence, and omniscience. This current is also known as “opening theology” or “God’s opening.”
Due to the so-called Process Theology , followers of open theism claim that the creative deity (God) has no ability to know about the future. This way you can constantly change your mind about your actions as events unfold.
Thus, for open theism, God is able to know all that can be known, yet as it is impossible to know what is yet to come, the supreme deity would not be absolutely omniscient.
To justify open theism, its proponents use passages from the Holy Scriptures to show how God is surprised in some situations, as well as change their mind and gain knowledge through experience (Genesis 6: 6; 22:12; Exodus 32: 14; Jonah 3:10).
Theism and Deism
Like theism, deism believes that the universe was created by a being of superior intelligence. However, both differ in that deism believes that this entity may or may not be God .
Unlike the foundations of theism, which consists of tradition and direct revelation of ancestral information, deism is based on reason, free thought, and personal experience.
Thus the conception of God is not only in the fact that it was revealed through ancient traditions, but through the rational understanding of the idea of Divinity. For this reason, deists cannot be considered atheists, since they believe in the existence of a deity. But unlike theism, deism does not see the need to institutionalize religions or other formal cults.
For deists, the creative deity tried to give nature the responsibility to control the course of life and all things. Thus, from the moment of creation, the Creator ceases to exercise his position as divinity, thus dispensing with the need for worship and worship.
Deist theories were elaborated in the seventeenth century by Lord Herbert Cherbury, the creator of British deism.