According to the classical and traditional view, the division of human history is made into four great periods, also called “Ages.” Are they:
- Old age
- Middle Ages
- Modern age
- Contemporary age
Divisions of History
The whole period that existed before the invention of writing is called Prehistory . Thus, prehistory would correspond to a period of humanity spanning millions of years.
At this moment, man learned to live in community, to use fire, to domesticate animals and to produce food, giving rise to agriculture.
In prehistory, man created language as a means of communication and invented writing. In addition, he created painting, ceramics and early social and political organizations.
Prehistory is divided into three periods:
- Paleolithic : Also called the “Chipped Stone Age”, it begins approximately 4.4 million years ago and extends to 8000 BC.
- Neolithic : Also called the “Polished Stone Age”, this period ranges from approximately 8000 BC to 5000 BC.
- Metal Age : period extending from 5000 BC until the emergence of Sumerian writing in 4000 BC.
Everything we know about Prehistory is due to the fossils and objects found in paleontological excavations, which occurred mainly from the late nineteenth century, extending to the present day, often presenting new discoveries.
Old Age or Antiquity is the period of history that is told from the development of writing by the Sumerians, about 4000 years BC, until the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 of the Christian era.
Among the historical facts of this period of history stand out:
- Eastern antiquity, which comprises Egyptian civilization, Mesopotamian civilization, Hebrew , Phoenician and Persian civilizations
- Ancient Greece , from the origins of the archaic period
- Ancient Rome and the Roman Empire until its fall in 476
The Middle Ages is the period of history that begins in 476 and goes until the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. In this period of history the following stand out:
- High Middle Ages
- Low Middle Ages
- Medieval culture
- Formation of National Monarchies
The Modern Age is the period of history that begins in 1453 and goes until the year 1789, date of the French Revolution. Within this period of history stand out:
- European Maritime Expansion
- Trade Revolution and Mercantilism
- European Colonialism in America
- African tour
- Cultural Renaissance
- Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation
The Contemporary Age is studied from 1789, the time of the French Revolution , to the present day. Within this period, various political, economic and social events were influenced by the French Revolution, such as:
- Independence of Brazil
- Industrial Revolution