The Media represents the vehicles or instruments designed to spread information among men, for example, radio, television, telephone, newspaper, magazine, internet, cinema, among others.
Since the development of science and new technologies, the media have advanced significantly, providing the diffusion of knowledge and communication in the world.
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According to the ” Communication Theory “, the sender (speaker) is the one who delivers the message and, in turn, the receiver (interlocutor) is the one who receives and decodes it.
“Communication channel” means the place or means by which the message will be sent to the receiver.
Thus, the media approaches the “channel”, as it represents the vehicle between the sender and the receiver, which can be written, sound, audiovisual language, for example, the newspaper, magazine (written communication) , radio and television (audiovisual communication), etc.
If we think that the history and origin of the media arise from the human need to express themselves, the rock art (primitive drawings inside caves or caves), characteristic of prehistory, already points out this importance in the lives of men.
Since the emergence of writing and the alphabet, man has been developing ways to expand knowledge and create a human “culture.”
Note that this is exactly what differentiates us from animals, that is, the creation of a culture (generated by human communication), since animal species do not have a “language” that allows them to create cultures, beliefs and traditions, which will be passed from generation to generation.
That said, it was centuries of development until we reached the point of communication that we have reached, that is, in the age of information technology and mass culture, where these media largely represent development factors of human society once that disseminated (and continues to disseminate) knowledge around the world, in various times and spaces.
After writing came the supports such as papyrus, scrolls, and later, books, which at first were the object of a few, being spread after the creation of the press in the fourteenth century.
Mail is considered one of the oldest means of communication, so the Egyptians already used to send documents and letters. In the past, birds such as doves and crows were used to send messages.
With the development of studies on electricity, as early as the eighteenth century, comes the telegraph , an instrument connected by wires and electromagnets, based on the emission of electromagnetic impulses, charged with sending messages over long distances.It was considered one of the great revolutions of the media being one of the first modern systems of communication.
Telegraphs were primarily used by governments, and the message (written or visual) was transmitted by codes, hence the Morse Code , invented by the American painter Samuel Morse (1791-1872).
In the nineteenth century, radio and telephone were the main means of communication.Through electromagnetic waves, the radio was created and used to propagate information, as well as entertainment, with music and radio soap operas. Note that it was an important communication tool used during wartime.
The telephone , on the other hand, represented the evolution of the telegraph as it represents a wired instrument, however, which emits voice messages over long distances in real time, while telegraphs only sent drawings or text messages.
However, unlike the telegraph, this means of communication has expanded and is widely used today: public telephone, analog, digital, wireless and mobile phones.
In the twentieth century, no doubt, television and the Internet were (and continue to be) the major media.
Television is an instrument for reproducing simultaneous sound and images by means of electromagnetic waves. The Internet , on the other hand, represents a global computer network system that uses the most varied network technologies: electronics, wireless and optical.
Research shows that television is still the most widely used means of communication by man, and secondly is the Internet, which is increasingly expanding worldwide in the field of instant communications.
According to the field and performance, there are two types of media, namely:
- Individual : Individual media are based on internal, interpersonal (between people) communication, for example, letter (mail), telephone, fax.
- Mass : The mass media is broader and more external in order to communicate a large number of people, eg newspapers, magazines, the internet, television, radio.
According to the type of language used (written, sound, audiovisual, multimedia, hypermedia), the media are classified as:
- Writings : written language of newspapers, books and magazines.
- Sounds: Languages through sounds, for example, the radio and the telephone.
- Audiovisuals : fusion of sound and image, for example, television and cinema .
- Multimedia : Bringing together different media (text, audio, video, etc.).
- Hypermedia : fusion of media through electronic communication systems, eg CD – ROM, digital TV and internet.