Racism is a type of prejudice associated with races , ethnicities or physical characteristics .People called racists are based on the ideology of superiority .
In other words, this kind of prejudice points out that some races or ethnicities are superior to others , whether by skin color, thoughts, opinions, beliefs, intelligence, culture or character.
We can prove the racism manifested in many moments of history as forms of domination, for example: slavery , apartheid , holocaust , colonialism , imperialism , the bleachingemphasized by many dictators, among others.
Note that most of the time, racism is associated only with prejudice against blacks , but racist attitudes are against any race or ethnicity, whether black, Asian, white, Indian, etc.
Types of Racism
There are several types of Racism, namely:
- Individual Racism : Arising from individual attitudes, manifested through stereotypes, behaviors and personal interests.
- Institutional Racism : Prejudice from political, economic institutions in which many individuals (blacks, women, Indians) are marginalized and rejected, either directly or indirectly.
- Cultural Racism : Emphasizes the superiority between existing cultures, manifested according to beliefs, religion, customs, languages, among others. Such racism may include elements of institutional and individual racism.
- Primary Racism : Emotional and psychosocial phenomenon manifested without justification. Thus ethnocentrism is considered a secondary racism, while tertiary racism is prejudice based on scientific theories.
- Communitarian Racism ( Differentialist ): Based on the concept that race is not nature, but culture or ethnicity. This type of racism configures the contemporary prejudice (anti-racism) manifested in accordance with existing differences. For this reason, today themes such as cultural identity, community, nation reinforce communitarian racism based on differences.
- Ecological ( Environmental ) Racism : Discrimination against nature, such as “mother earth” caused by environmental destruction, affecting groups and communities based on unequal enforcement.
Racism Related Concepts
Some concepts related to racism are:
- Race : Concept manifested according to the physical characteristics of people. Thus, the four main groups of race are: Caucasians, Mongolians, Australoids and Blacks. In Brazil, the main existing races are: caboclo, mestizo, mulatto and cafuzo.
- Ethnicity : In addition to physical characteristics, ethnicity encompasses culture, beliefs, religion, language.
- Bullying : Prejudice and violent practice against defenseless people that can even cause psychological problems in sufferers. These days, there is much talk of these prejudiced attitudes manifested in school environments, although bullying can happen anywhere. With the expansion of the Internet today, the term ” Cyber bullying ” refers to violent attitudes performed via the network. It is noteworthy that from English ” Bully ” means brutal.
- Xenophobia : Discrimination and intolerance towards foreign things and people.
- Ethnocentrism : Concept associated with the superiority of one culture over another, ie, prejudices based on the opinions about a given culture, viewed according to their beliefs, customs and traditions, etc.
- Homophobia : Prejudice against homosexuals, bisexuals, transvestites and transsexuals. Remember that in some countries homosexuality is considered an aberration, crime and there is a death penalty for homosexuals.
- The International Day of “Elimination of Racial Discrimination” is celebrated on March 21st.
- The practice of racism is considered an unenforceable crime, with a penalty of up to 3 years in prison.
- Some racist movements around the world: Neonazists and Skinheads. These groups harass, beat and kill people considered different, whether by race, color, culture or even by sexual, religious, etc. preferences.