The Second Industrial Revolution was born with the scientific and technological progress that occurred in England, France and the United States, around the second half of the nineteenth century.
Summary of Key Features
Between 1850 and 1950, the search for discoveries and inventions was long, which represented greater comfort for the human being, as well as the dependence of countries that did not carry out the scientific, technological or industrial revolution.
The world has come to buy, consume and use manufactured products made in England, France, the United States, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Japan.
The discovery and exploitation of new sources of energy – oil (in the combustion engine), water (in hydroelectric plants), uranium (for nuclear energy) further revolutionized industrial production. The list of inventions and discoveries is huge, which represented greater comfort for the human being.
In the pursuit of higher profits, labor specialization was pushed to the extreme, production was expanded to serial production, which reduced the cost per unit.
The assembly lines, conveyor belts where the parts of the product to be assembled circulated, in order to streamline the process.
The Ford auto industry of businessman Henry Ford , based in the United States, was the first to make use of the tracks that drove the chassis of the car through the entire factory.
The workers assembled the cars with the pieces that came into their hands on another treadmill. This method of rationalizing production was called Fordism .
This form of production integrated the theories of American engineer Frederick Taylor, Taylorism , which aimed at increasing productivity by controlling the movements of machines and men in the production process.
This whole revolution led to the emergence of large industries and the generation of large economic concentrations, which formed the holdings , trusts and cartels .
Inventions of the Second Industrial Revolution
Among the many discoveries and inventions made during the Second Industrial Revolution are:
- new steel manufacturing processes, allowing its use in the construction of bridges, machines, buildings, rails, tools etc;
- technical development of electricity production;
- invention of the incandescent lamp ;
- emergence and advancement of means of transport ( expansion of the railwaysfollowed by the inventions of the automobile and the airplane ;
- invention of the media ( telegraph, telephone, television and cinema );
- advance of chemistry with the discovery of new substances; the discovery of the multiple use of petroleum and its derivatives as a source of energy and lubricants;the emergence of plastics ; development of armaments such as the cannon and the machine gun; the discovery of the explosive power of nitroglycerin etc;
- In medicine, antibiotics , vaccines , new knowledge about diseases and new surgical techniques have emerged.